Why Can’t He Recall Information He’s Learned?

InfoStoreWhere is all that information going that I teach my child each day?

Dominance is a huge determining factor in the brain’s ability to store and retrieve information.  In order to be neurologically efficient (like a defragged computer), your brain must be neurologically organized – one hemisphere must dominate and coordinate your entire body.  The determination for dominance starts with the hand.

Hand dominance is genetically predetermined and should not be encouraged one way or the other.  It should emerge by the time a child is 3 to 8 years of age. If an individual is right handed it is much more efficient for the right ear, eye, and foot to be dominant as well.  If left handed it is best to be completely dominant on the left side. To be right eared or eyed does not mean that you have better hearing or vision in your right; it means that your right directs which hemisphere of the brain information is stored.

Reasoning, analytical and logical thinking are the job of the dominant hemisphere of the brain and when neurologically organized (dominant all on one side) you have much more access to these vital skills. Thus, when you go to retrieve information, it is easily accessible.  If you are mixed dominant, your sub-dominant ear or eye will file information in your sub-dominant hemisphere, which is where music, creativity and emotion take place.  Information stored here is much more difficult to retrieve.

Individuals with mixed dominance are typically more emotional, easily upset and hard to calm down.  When they are under stress or pressure they often do not have access to information they know.  These are the children that do not test well or baffle the parent because they know something perfectly one day, but the next day, they don’t recall ever being presented with the information.  This can be extremely frustrating for both parent and child!  When a child is frustrated day after day, you will have a child with low self-esteem, long-term memory problems, and often emotional and behavior problems as well.  This happens because they are functioning using the sub-dominant (emotional) hemisphere of the brain.

Symptoms of mixed dominance include:  long-term memory problems, inability to stay on task, reading difficulties, number and letter reversals, emotionality, spelling difficulties, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, poor testing ability, and inability to retain information.

For information about testing for dominance and what to do if your child is mixed dominant, read the following article:   Learning Disabilities

Article written by Jan Bedell, M.Ed., M. ND.  from Little Giant Steps

Neurodevelopment – Can It Help Everyone?

ND4All GOOD NEWS FOR EVERYONE     (BTW ~ The Freebies Are At The End of the Post! :-) )

When God created mankind, he created abilities most of us don’t even know about. A baby is born, they grow and develop and become a child, an adolescent, an adult, an then an elderly person.  Many things happen to us as we travel our journey. According to some faculty at Washington University in their article on how much of our brain we actually use. They state Einstein helped to perpetuate that humans only used 10% of their brains, and that has been proven to be false ~ a myth. With the advancement in brain imaging, it shows that all parts the brain is being used, even when we are sleeping the brain is being used, but in a different way or active state. So, why would everyone benefit from neurodevelopmental programs, such as those available through Little Giant Steps?

LIFE’S JOURNEY IS NOT ALWAYS TROUBLE FREE

If every child had the same benefits, enrichment, exposure to developmental activities during infancy, never had a serious ear infection, and a myriad of items that go into developing the connections between the brain and body; everyone would have great neuro-efficiency which results in fast, accurate, memory, comprehension, storage, and recall of information!  However, life isn’t the same for us.  In fact, at this point in our country’s development we are seeing smart kids,  even gifted kids, struggling with learning!  What we know after having treated learning issues for twenty years, is that changes in function in the brain can and does happen through utilizing developmental programs. Here’s an example: When a child, teen, or even adult is so disorganized in their daily lives, it typically is due the lower levels of the brain have not been organized.  The most common way to develop an organized brain is as a infant, or small child, having had many hours of opportunities to be crawling and creeping around on the floor! It is in the cross-patterning of the body early on, that the lower levels of the brain become organized.  This missed activity can be picked up at any time in an individual’s life, and the missed early developmental step will be picked up and the brain and body will respond the same as it would have as a baby! The big difference is when you are older, and you notice your life is less chaotic and frustrating habits like losing things become a part of your history, not your future!  Another good thing about repeating neuro-developmental activities such as crawling is that your visual abilities improve, as well.  It’s when you crawl as a tiny tot that your eyes tracking abilities develop.  When each system gets set up to do what it was supposed to do (Hearing, Language, Visual, and Gross and Fine Motor Skills, and Tactility) the functional ability, is higher than a system that has missed those vital activities that brings us up and into our God-given potential.

THE ANSWER IS YES

Everyone can have higher functional levels when there is neuro-efficiency.  Even older people who start having trouble recalling names, places, even difficulty expressing themselves with words they can’t recall. (I only speak of people who do not have a disease process or other physiological issues going on.)  Little Giant Steps has had good results when these folks follow our Memory and Motion Program.  It helps to re-organize the brain, stimulates the connections between the brain and body to increase in size and mass, and as folks tell us, “It’s like going from a dial-up internet connection to a high-speed line.”  When there is neuro-efficiency we think better, faster, and more accurately.  As long as we are alive we all have the feature in our brain called neuro-plasticity. It allows the brain to grow the ends of the nerves (dendrites) and create new neuro-pathways.  Most of these activities requires two minutes a day, twice a day.  So, this is not an exhaustive program.  In fact, the Memory and Motion Program can be done while still in bed, early before you rise, and at night before you go to sleep.  Our educational curriculum and programs also include increasing the processing abilities (visual and auditory) to help with short-term memory, plus when we evaluate an individual, we look at six levels of function and nine levels of development.  Our job is to fix the function of those areas that are not age or grade-level appropriate.  One thing is for sure, the Neurodevelopmental Approach utilized through Little Giant Steps neuro-educational programs is a win – win for everyone concerned!

ARE YOU UP TO LEARN FOR FREE??

See our free Webinars.   If you have questions, then take a free Survey – you’ll get a free consult back from a Certified Neuro-Educational Specialist with recommendations.  And, if you want to see just where your or  your child’s math proficiency is compared to where they should be [for free] - Go to Math Proficiency Assessment.  Ok, that’s all the good news I have today!  Take care.

Mom Reviews ELF-Level 2 – WOW!

ELFReview

 

 

 

 

 

Reviewed by Tiffany Orthman, M.Ed.

Created by Jan Bedell, M.Ed., M.ND. founder of Little Giant Steps

Early Learning Foundations Level 2 by Little Giant Steps is nothing short of a godsend. (Click to tweet.) How I came to use it is purely providential. About a year ago I reviewed Child Brain Development from The Family Hope Center and noticed that my second son reacted to things slightly differently than my oldest son did. Unsure of what to do, I decided to wait and see. Then I volunteered to review Early Learning Foundations Level 2 not knowing that it is a neurodevelopmental math program.

(LGS note: Early Learning Foundations Curriculum Type: Curriculum and Improved Auditory, Visual and Academic Efficiency -includes math)

The curriculum I received looked too advanced for my 4 ½-year-old but too easy for my 6 ½ -year-old. So I went to the Little Giant Steps website for further guidance. I found a questionnaire and decided to fill it out with my second oldest in mind, mentioning that he showed no interest in potty training. Shortly thereafter, I received a personal e-mail stating that he might have an auditory processing problem. She recommended having him listen to Mozart and begin Early Learning Foundations Level 2.

Improvement from using Early Learning Foundations Level 2

Within 1 week I began to see a difference in my son, and soon my whole family saw his sweet personality emerge. Here are some things that have changed:

  • He counts things. He had never shown an interest in numbers or letters until that point.
  • He shows an appropriate response to pain. When he was two, he bumped into a hot barbecue grill and never even cried. Now he responds when he is injured.
  • He sings. I never noticed that he had not made up songs like other children until one day I heard him singing.
  • He spontaneously shows affection. He would never initiate physical contact and would respond stiffly to hugs and kisses. Now he will climb up, put his arm around me, and say, “I love you.”
  • He does not cover his ears and zone out in loud places. Twice he had pseudoseizures in noisy restaurants, but the neurologist gave no answers.  Now he does not act overstimulated at the store or at church.
  • He is ticklish. When he sat stock-still during haircuts, I thought he had more discipline than his wiggly brother. Now he wiggles all over and will laugh when he is tickled.
  • He makes jokes. He has the gift of sarcasm and a sophisticated sense of humor. We just never knew because he hardly talked.
  • He has voice inflection. His speech patterns were very monotonic, but we thought it was a reflection of his seemingly stoic personality. Now he changes volume and pitch to show a wide range of emotion.

The Early Learning Foundations Level 2 package includes the following:

  • teacher manual
  • student book
  • Addition in Minutes Student Practice Book
  • Auditory and Visual Input Disc
  • random 3-digit flashcards
  • Digit Span Deck
  • analog, digital, and written flashcards
  • coin      flashcards

Early Learning Foundations Level 2 is very time consuming and teacher intensive because it is neurodevelopmental. On a typical day, I spend 1 ½ to 2 hours working one-on-one with my son doing the following activities:

  • three audio/visual input sessions done on the computer
  • two types of physical exercises done twice each
  • auditory and visual processing activities done twice each
  • various flashcard activities
  • addition exercises
  • two  activity pages

Early Learning Foundations Level 2 has rather low-tech graphics, and there are some spelling/grammar errors in the Teacher Manual. I had to read some of the directions several times to be sure that I was implementing the program correctly; but once I figured it out, it was easy to do. The web training was a tremendous help.

Words cannot express how grateful I am that God brought me Early Learning Foundations Level 2. I cannot bear the thought of how my son would have gone through life without his needs met. I will continue on with Early Learning Foundations Level 3 this coming year.

- See more at: http://hedua.com/reviews/early-learning-foundations-level-2/#sthash.0NZmuFi8.dpuf

Early Learning Foundations Level 1, 2, or 3 are available on our website.

Why Can’t He Follow Directions?

1BoyHER SON IS STRUGGLING IN SCHOOL, BUT SHE DOESN’T KNOW WHAT TO DO?

“Frustrated beyond reason”, the mother exclaimed, as she was telling us about the traits her son Jon was displaying.  “He’s a bright kid, but the most frustrating child I’ve ever dealt with, it’s like there’s a brake on in his head. I truly believe he wants to do good in school, but it’s just not happening!” Other behaviors were very disturbing to her, as well. “His homework is always so messy, and he forgets details and I just wonder if he’s paying attention, or is he being defiant and disobedient?”  It is difficult for a parent, especially when you have a vibrant, curious-natured child that appears to have everything they need to achieve in school. Parents typically notice behaviors that seem a bit “out of place”, but most of us just think it’s a phase they are going through.  Parents typically just want the child to “snap out it and pay attention!” Little Giant Steps (LGS) can provide insight into these areas of performance and we, along with the parents participation, can provide life-changing, natural solutions.

The most important thing we can encourage parents about is that when you see these kinds of “markers” it is our experience you are looking at learning issues related to neuro-development.  Which is a good thing, because problems can be fixed, and the struggles, frustrations, and learning difficulties can become a part of your child’s history, not their future.

Little Giant Steps has many articles on our website to help you educate yourself, and help to understand more about challenges your child may be experiencing. Here are a few tips to assist you in discovering what specifically is going on.

#1. Take the Free Survey offered on the homepage side bar, just click on the question mark.  Follow directions and email it to our Certified Neuro-Educational Specialist. Your survey will be reviewed and will be sent back with a recommendation to improve any issues.

#2. Follow this link to our Free Auditory Processing Test Kit (it is a snapshot of your child’s current auditory processing (short-term memory) abilities.  You’ll be able to discover if your child is performing at grade/age level.  The ability to fix that very important part of learning ability, is discussed, as well.  For more details, we have a booklet The Best Kept Secret In Education available. #homeschool #learning disabilities #school #autism #children #family #academics #hedua #ttd/nashville

WE HAVE WINNERS!

Winning MORE WINNERS TO COME!

Congratulations To “Little Giant Steps $100.00 Winners”!  We are happy to announce our two winners:

#1. Leslie Agee from Hendersonville, TN,    #2. Holli Taylor from Bryson City, NC.

Our next opportunity for you to win will be at Oklahoma City, OCHEC Home School Convention - May 2-3, 2014

The Arlington Home School will start May 9-10, 2014. Be sure and stop by our booth, and attend Jan Bedell’s Workshops.

We are so grateful for the opportunity to participate in the Teach Them Diligently – Nashville convention! Wonderful people were sent to us, and God allowed us to minister to them and give them hope. Learning disabilities, difficulties do not have to be life sentences once you know and understand how to make changes in the communicating abilities between the brain and body. It all a matter of development! Thanks to all those who participated! We, as all of you, were blessed to be attending such an rich, renewing, and God-inspiring event. A big thanks to David and Leslie Nunnery from all of us at Little Giant Steps!

We are looking forward to seeing all of our fellow-Texans in Dallas June 26 – 28th at the Teach Them Diligently Convention – Dallas!  Come meet us: www.littlegiantsteps.com.   Jan Bedell, M.Ed., M.ND., The Brain Coach will be speaking, so be sure and check the schedule so you don’t miss making learning easier through The Neuro-development Approach. #homeschool#, #learning difficulties#, #learning disabilities#,#math#, #reading#

What If It’s Something Other Than Bad Behavior?

 WhatIf SOMETIMES PARENTS DON’T HAVE THE ANSWERS.

Everyone at Little Giant Steps have experienced reaching a point where they were aware there was a problem with their child. Some of it was school, some was attitude, and some was way too much bad behavior. Each of us recognized something was not working right within our child. Most of us thought it was circumstantial and we expected it to work itself out.  After a while, things were getting worse instead of better.  Then for some of us, something happened that made the issue we’d been grappling with stand out,  an alarm sounded that we couldn’t ignore, and caused so much pain and worry; we went to all manner and means to find a solution.

Those who have followed the Little Giant Step’s programs have been blessed to watch our children move beyond their limitations, and to witness the transformation of a sullen, angry child into a son or daughter who developed not only skills that seem to elude them the first part of their lives, but now exude a level of confidence, self-esteem, and dare we say, “joy”! They are successful!  They can find their own way and seek the good things for themselves, because they now can organize information, be quick and accurate in their thinking, comprehension, recall, able to judge life better, and they now know they are worth it!

How can a struggling son or daughter make such a turnaround?  Little Giant Steps has been supplying such services for twenty years. When a natural, developmental individualized program is practiced daily, the brain and body will respond.  As I explained to a woman today, “How we function as human beings is all in our wiring. It is in prompting through specific stimuli, that we can coax the brain to begin to build or grow new networks, high-speed transport systems, or rewire the existing connections, and thereby gain new or improved function.”  The Neurodevelopmental Approach does not look to a diagnosis or label, because we are really only interested in looking fixing the function - or  fixing the problem. When proper function isn’t happening, it’s our job to evaluate, write a specific program that will bring  each area in the brain up to the appropriate grade level of function. When that is done, most unproductive symptoms disappear! It is like taking a huge anchor off someone’s back. When our son’s and daughter’s are unhappy, stressed, and failing, they do not thrive in a normal environment. LGS provide the tools and means of creating better connections between the brain and body.  When the foundational developmental steps are significantly improved, we see these behaviors recede and the abilities needed to be successful in academics, problem solving,  and being neurologically efficient (the brain and body communicating fast and accurate between the varying senses and systems). These activities cause the individual to blossom into self-confident, curious, and life-embracing individuals, because at last they can “do things” and succeed.

So, if you are looking at a spiral of self-defeating behaviors developing in your child, take a break.  Go to our website and take “The Survey“. It will help you on your journey to making life better, not only for your child, but for you and your family, as well.  Fill it out the survey, submit it, and a Certified Neuro-Educational Specialist will look it over, and come back to you with helpful recommendations. No cost, no charge. We want you and your child to find the solution you are seeking, and this is a first step in that direction. Review our website, there is so much valuable information to help you navigate through this rough patch…. and with our brain training programs, that’s all it is – a rough patch in your life. Learning issues, bad behavior, and failing in school are not life sentences when you decide to make a change. Little Giant Steps is here to walk you through this life-changing journey.

FROM ONE OF OUR GRADUATES

“Hi, I was just thinking about you guys at LGS!  I am in college now, and thanks to the help you gave me when I was 14 years old, I am able to follow my life’s dream.  There is nothing I would rather do then to be a worship leader and write worship music. While in college I recorded a new song.  I hope to get to see you again someday! Again thanks to LGS for helping me be who I am today.  Take care, Allison, 11, 2012″         (You can listen to Allison on My Space – we loved being a part of changing her life for the better, we are so blessed! ~ LGS)  Allison Huntly

 

 

 

It’s Started! Homeschool Convention Season!

sp-bedell

Jan Bedell, M.Ed., M.ND – Speaking Schedule ~ Don’t Miss Her!

The Little Giant Steps dream team is hard at work in booth 1102, at the Gaylord Opryland Hotel, Nashville, TN!

While many may not be able to be there to hear her in person, I would encourage you to seek new knowledge on how to help your child reach their full God-given potential in academics, physical coordination, and social maturity by taking advantage of our free webinars available to you in the comfort of your own home!  These are full training seminars, with helpful tips, techniques, and many services she’s giving away while Jan  is in Nashville.

There will be recordings done that can be acquired through Teach Them Diligently .  Recordings from the 2014 Conventions may be purchased here.

If you’d like to get the Convention discount on one operation of Rapid Recall System ( 7-9 Min. A Day – A Math Facts Program, that will give mastery of quick, accurate math facts), email me:  cj@littlegiantsteps.com, Subject line: ME TOO!  Allow a week to receive it, as our order dept. manager is on the road this week!

Friday 10:30 am #1.Create a Positive Home and Learning Environment (General &  Special Needs Population).  Room:  Jackson A      

Friday 3:00 pm  #2.We’re Talking, but are they listening?   Room: Jackson C

Saturday 9:00 am  #3.Make Learning Easier For Struggling, Typical, and Advanced Students. Room: Lincoln C

 

 

Don’t Miss Out – Freebies Galore

LGS LogoGREAT TEACHING, GREAT HOMESCHOOL DEALS, AND GREAT FREEBIES AT OUR BOOTH!

Jan Bedell, M.Ed., M.ND., the “Brain Coach”, will be at the Teach Them Diligently Convention in Nashville, TN.  March 20 – 22, 2014!

Jan is the founder of Little Giant Steps (LGS). For over two decades LGS has changed the academic lives of children, teens, and adults.  We work with families to give them the skill and knowledge to assist in making learning easier, accurate, and quicker in recalling information.  Many products will be available at Nashville, but we also have them available online at the LGS Store.  The Freebies we’ll be giving out are a part of our culture, as we want to give away as much helpful information as possible.  Below are a list of freebies that can make a huge difference in an individual’s performance abilities.

LIST OF FREEBIES

  • ARTICLES (they’ll help you understand the modality, and how change is accomplished)
  • AUDITORY TEST KITS ( try this one first, then do the visual test. For little ones – Tiny Tots)
  • THE SURVEY (fill it out, a neuro-educational specialist reviews and sends back recommendations)
  • MATH PROFICIENCY ASSESSMENT (lets you know level of math performance and helps available)
  • WEBINARS (full training seminars with the Brain Coach)

Everything we do is according to God’s natural plan of development.  We use the feature in the brain call neuro-plasticity to change (improve) the functional level of an individual, and to create a better learning experience regardless of age or I.Q.  Everyone gains in ability by doing our programs. The brain training is easy, it does require at least 2 minutes twice a day, but that’s a small price to pay for a fuller, more successful educational, self-confident life.

Tip: Improve Learning Success

IncreaseGrdsIMPROVED  OR ACCELERATED LEARNING AT HOME

When parents are looking for help in getting their child on a path to achievement, that is where Little Giant Steps works. Parents recognize many perplexing learning difficulties encountered by their sons or daughters in the classroom or homeschool, and they typically don’t know what to do. Typically will ask us, “Now, what is it you do?”   So for all those who would like to know, I’ll put it in a nutshell:

Little Giant Steps, is a neuro-educational/developmental consulting group. We provide professional screeningsevaluations, neuro-educational curriculum, supplemental educational programs, and in-home, at-a-distance programs. We also provide a number of FREE services: Auditory, Visual & Tiny Tots Test Kits, Surveys, FREE Webinars, (full educational seminars), Educational Articles.
 
We work only with natural means to reduce or eliminate learning challenges. We provide programs designed to stimulate the brain to change for improved functional ability.  What is the greatest learning tool humans have?  The Brain!  How is it possible to improve function? There is a feature in the brain called neuro-plasticity, which when stimulated results in physiological improved changes in the brain. By dynamically changing, adding, repairing the neuro-pathways (connections) between the brain and body, we get a state called neuro-efficiency.  When there is neuro-efficiency, improved function develops!  By the way, it doesn’t matter if it’s a child, teen, or adult, nor what the I.Q. may be – all are helped in reaching their God-given potential through The Neuro-developmental Approach.

LAYMAN’S TERMS

By stimulating the brain with specific kinds of activities (both cognitive and/or physical motion), the result causes the ends of the nerve cells to grow.  Now, if you and I wanted to get to a specific destination in a hurry by car, would you go down a dirt road in the country, or get on a super-highway?  Yes, the super-highway.  Doing neuro-developmental activities can result in better brain organization, improved short-term memory, better auditory, visual, and tactile processing of information, which is like driving down a super-highway – everything is faster and easier. Some of our clients have likened their experience of improved function as going from a dial-up line on a computer to a high-speed internet connection!  There is greater efficiency, faster communication, and instantaneous response from you senses and systems (sight, hearing, feeling) happening between your brain and body.  That’s neuro-efficiency!  For instance, Jan Bedell, founder of Little Giant Steps, known to others as the “Brain Coach“, developed a math facts program (Rapid Recall System) that takes advantage of the ability to create neuro-efficiency.  It’s done in 7-9 minutes a day, with great intensity and frequency.  The result after getting the brain, eyes, ears more efficient is an accurate and rapid recall of math facts that lasts a lifetime!  The brain, when it becomes efficient, receives, comprehends, stores, and can accurately recall information at much higher rates than before doing our programs.  It’s not rocket science!  It is capitalizing on how God designed our brain and the neuro-plasticity to become fast and accurate in communicating with our body’s sensory systems. It makes everything about learning easier.

HERE’S EVEN MORE GREAT NEW!

All  have experienced struggle, a time when we just keep missing the mark. We know that small part of ourselves that disappoints us, but even more painful can be those around us who are disappointed or frustrated with us.  Many of us have felt the sting when our brothers and sisters, friends, and sometimes classmates tease us, call us names, or bully us about what we are not successful at doing.  The price we pay is a loss of our self-confidence.  Who can feel good about themselves when it seems like we fail more than we succeed?   I have seen enormous turn-around in this part of our client’s lives when their brains get organized, when they can think quickly and accurately, and especially when they remember the right answers!  It doesn’t matter how old you are, when anyone can discover the key to unlock our learning potential ~ IT FEELS GOOD!   You get to walk away from those old days of failure, self doubt, and for a few, self-hatred.  You discover you “CAN” do things and do them correctly! You also discover what freedom you now have to follow your own special dreams and interests, because you are no longer being tied to the ground by the anchor of learning issues, disabilities, or even syndromes.  That’s what keeps all of us at Little Giant Steps so excited.  Our kids, teens and adults leave our program with the function they were struggling with fixed!  It’s no longer an issue!  We are always blessed by being in a place where we see the wonderful transformation of people’s lives.  Parents get a front row seat, because we assist them in becoming the expert in applying the program at home (we do have our programs in schools, as well), but we can more clearly witness the wonderfully defining moments along the way and share the entire families’ renewal as life becomes better for one or more members as they travel with Little Giant Steps on the very special and unique learning journey.

 

 

Want Improved “Following Directions, Paying Attention, etc.”?

TestKit

FIX THE NEURO-EFFICIENCY, FIX SHORT-TERM MEMORY

Get ahead of the game by getting a free test kit from Little Giant Steps, then follow up with great information on them at the conventions listed below! Jan will be demonstrating how to administer Auditory Tests, Visual Tests, and Tiny Tots, so you can know the current level of processing ability of anyone in your family who takes the test! If some are not up to appropriate age or grade level, there is an easy fix that will last a lifetime! Once you know the level of ability, you can very easily use any of the recommended products to start helping your child, yourself, or even your spouse to gain an increase in ability to following directions, comprehend, pay attention, increase short-term memory, and improve many other globally affected areas. Get free test kit now: http://store.littlegiantsteps.com/products/free-test-kits

If you want to understand more fully about “The Best Kept Secret In Education” order the 22 page booklet. It gives games, and many helpful tips to accelerate your child’s performance abilities in or out of school.

Conventions coming up:             

Teach Them Diligently, Nashville, TN  -  March 20 – 22nd, 2014  

OCHEC Convention, Oklahoma City, OK - May 1 – 3rd, 2014    

Arlington Homeschool Convention, Arlington, TX -  May 8– 10th, 2014  

FEAST Convention,  Helotes, TX - May 15- 17th, 201  

Teach Them Diligently, Dallas, TX - June 26 – 28th, 2014

NAUMS Conference,   Fort Worth, TX - July 22 -24th, 2014